where do walrus live
They weigh 45 to 75 kg (99 to 165 lb) at birth and are able to swim. They appear awkward on land but graceful in the water where they feel most comfortable. Interesting facts about the island of Wrangel. , Walrus ivory masks made by Yupik in Alaska, John Tenniel's illustration for Lewis Carroll's poem "The Walrus and the Carpenter", Dutch explorers fight a walrus on the coast of Novaya Zemlya, 1596. Pacific walruses live in the northern seas near Russia and Alaska. Where do walruses live? Unlike seals walruses avoid extensive water spaces and endless pack (long-term) ice, so they are found only on the coasts of Europe, Asia, North America and the Arctic islands. , Seal tissue has been observed in fairly significant proportion of walrus stomachs in the Pacific, but the importance of seals in the walrus diet is under debate. , Aside from the large numbers of organisms actually consumed by the walrus, its foraging has a large peripheral impact on benthic communities. Pregnancy lasts one year. Growing up to 3,750 pounds, male Pacific walruses are larger than females and measure approximately 10 feet long. The scientific name for the walrus, Odobenus rosmarus, is Latin for “tooth walking sea-horse.” Record Holder. While some of these uses have faded with access to alternative technologies, walrus meat remains an important part of local diets, and tusk carving and engraving remain a vital art form. Walruses live in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of the world near the North Pole. They are able to stay under the water for about 30 minutes before coming up for air. Old males, in particular, become nearly pink. In late spring and summer, for example, several hundred thousand Pacific walruses migrate from the Bering Sea into the Chukchi Sea through the relatively narrow Bering Strait. O. rosmarus rosmarus The Norwegian manuscript Konungsskuggsja, thought to date from around AD 1240, refers to the walrus as "rosmhvalr" in Iceland and "rostungr" in Greenland (walruses were by now extinct in Iceland and Norway, while the word evolved in Greenland).  The meat, often preserved, is an important winter nutrition source; the flippers are fermented and stored as a delicacy until spring; tusks and bone were historically used for tools, as well as material for handicrafts; the oil was rendered for warmth and light; the tough hide made rope and house and boat coverings; and the intestines and gut linings made waterproof parkas. "Ecology and Biology of the Pacific Walrus, "The sensitivity of the vibrissae of a Pacific Walrus (, "Carnivorous walrus and some arctic zoonoses", "Izembek National Wildlife Report Sept 2015", "Stock Assessment Report: Pacific Walrus – Alaska Stock", "Status of Marine Mammals of the North Atlantic: The Atlantic Walrus", "Atlantic Walrus: Northwest Atlantic Population", "Disappearance of Icelandic Walruses Coincided with Norse Settlement", 10.1890/0012-9615(2001)071[0137:CDPOPA]2.0.CO;2, "Feeding behaviour of free-ranging walruses with notes on apparent dextrality of flipper use", "Feeding and Trophic Relationships of Phocid Seals and walruses in the Eastern Bering Sea", "Narwhals, Narwhal Pictures, Narwhal Facts", "Interactions between Polar Bears and Overwintering Walruses in the Central Canadian High Arctic", "North American Bear Center – Polar Bear Facts", "A review of Killer Whale interactions with other marine mammals: Predation to co-existence", "Hunting and Use of Walrus by Alaska Natives", "Use and preference for Traditional Foods among Belcher Island Inuit". . They prefer a habitat with a gravelly bottom. It is the sole surviving member of the family Odobenidae, one of three lineages in the suborder Pinnipedia along with true seals (Phocidae) and eared seals (Otariidae).  Reduced coastal sea ice has also been implicated in the increase of stampeding deaths crowding the shorelines of the Chukchi Sea between eastern Russia and western Alaska. Two subspecies of walrus are widely recognized: the Atlantic walrus, O. r. rosmarus (Linnaeus, 1758) and the Pacific walrus, O. r. divergens (Illiger, 1815). Adult walrus … Walruses are relatively long-lived, social animals, and they are considered to be a "keystone species" in the Arctic marine regions. About two-thirds of the lives of these animals is spent underwater. They can swim to a depth of around 100m to feed on molluscs and other invertebrates, but on average do not go much deeper than 20-30m. Traditional hunters used all parts of the walrus. The calves learn to run within 2 weeks of being born, and they can begin their migration back to their northern climes. Male Pacific walrus are slightly larger, with longer tusks. Walruses are widely distributed but occupy a relatively narrow ecological niche, requiring areas of shallow water. Where do walruses live? Young walruses are deep brown and grow paler and more cinnamon-colored as they age. The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. , The walrus plays an important role in the religion and folklore of many Arctic peoples. Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus). I Am the Walrus The walrus has many adaptations that enable it to live in the harsh, frigid conditions near the Arctic Circle. Walruses are ‘Arctic Circles creatures, considered to be one of the largest fin-footed, semi-aquatic animals, sea mammals in particular.. The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. They live in groups of 10-20 individuals, but can form rookeries up to 100-3000 individuals (more often such large groups are created by females). Atlantic walruses live in the coastal areas along northeastern Canada to Greenland. The blubber layer beneath is up to 15 cm (6 in) thick. This mammal lives in the Arctic Ocean and feeds on shellfish from the seabed. A female usually gives birth to a single calf once every three to four years. Breeding occurs from January to March, peaking in February. , The majority of the population of the Pacific walrus spends its summers north of the Bering Strait in the Chukchi Sea of the Arctic Ocean along the northern coast of eastern Siberia, around Wrangel Island, in the Beaufort Sea along the northern shore of Alaska south to Unimak Island, and in the waters between those locations. There can be 400 to 700 vibrissae in 13 to 15 rows reaching 30 cm (12 in) in length, though in the wild they are often worn to much shorter lengths due to constant use in foraging. [according to whom? The mothers nurse for over a year before weaning, but the young can spend up to five years with the mothers. Walrus tusks were a big commodity during the period, with Europeans willing to pay big money or trade iron and much-needed timber (trees are scarce in Greenland) for the ivory. Sexual maturity in walruses occurs at the age of 5 years. , Walruses live to about 20–30 years old in the wild. Walrus use their mighty tusks to forage and lift themselves up onto sea ice.  From there, it presumably recolonized the North Pacific Ocean during high glaciation periods in the Pleistocene via the Central American Seaway. SushiWalrus streams live on Twitch! What are walrus mating rituals like?  The males reach sexual maturity as early as seven years, but do not typically mate until fully developed at around 15 years of age.  However, killer whales have been observed successfully attacking walruses with few or no injuries.. Its skin is highly wrinkled and thick, up to 10 cm (4 in) around the neck and shoulders of males. , The rest of the year (late summer and fall), walruses tend to form massive aggregations of tens of thousands of individuals on rocky beaches or outcrops. The origin of the word walrus is thought by J.R.R. What Do Walruses Eat? The Russian Atlantic and Laptev Sea populations are classified as Category 2 (decreasing) and Category 3 (rare) in the Russian Red Book. Indeed, most marine biologists think they use their massive chompers just to eat clams and other shellfish. Threats and Status: The walrus lives on the edge of the Arctic ice sheet and is often hunted by polar bears and killer whales (orcas). The current population of these walruses has been estimated to be between 5,000 and 10,000.  These dates coincide with the hypothesis derived from fossils that the walrus evolved from a tropical or subtropical ancestor that became isolated in the Atlantic Ocean and gradually adapted to colder conditions in the Arctic. This includes the Chukchi Sea and the Beaufort Sea. , Currently, two of the three walrus subspecies are listed as "least-concern" by the IUCN, while the third is "data deficient". Scientists estimate 200,000 of these giant pinnipeds (the seal family) live in the Chukchi and Bering seas between Alaska and Russia.  For example, the Old Norse word hrossvalr means "horse-whale" and is thought to have been passed in an inverted form to both Dutch and the dialects of northern Germany as walros and Walross.  Newborn walruses are already quite large, averaging 33 to 85 kg (73 to 187 lb) in weight and 1 to 1.4 m (3 ft 3 in to 4 ft 7 in) in length across both sexes and subspecies.  There were roughly 200,000 Pacific walruses in 1990. The polar bear often hunts the walrus by rushing at beached aggregations and consuming the individuals crushed or wounded in the sudden exodus, typically younger or infirm animals. 3. They can be found in the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Arctic Ocean.  Recent multigene analysis indicates the odobenids and otariids diverged from the phocids about 20–26 million years ago, while the odobenids and the otariids separated 15–20 million years ago. Walruses occur in gravel-bottom habitats and they are found in water at a maximum depth of 262 feet.  This population was nearly eradicated by commercial harvest; their current numbers, though difficult to estimate, probably remain below 20,000. Even in the presence of a free area, a herd of walruses does not disperse along the coastline, but keeps cumulatively, just as they dive together into the water. During their lifetimes, male and female walruses live apart, in separate herds. ] Compare морж (morž) in Russian, mursu in Finnish, morša in Northern Saami, and morse in French.  Analysis of trends in ice cover published in 2012 indicate that Pacific walrus populations are likely to continue to decline for the foreseeable future, and shift further north, but that careful conservation management might be able to limit these effects.  Rarely, incidents of walruses preying on seabirds, particularly the Brünnich's guillemot (Uria lomvia), have been documented. , The compound Odobenus comes from odous (Greek for "teeth") and baino (Greek for "walk"), based on observations of walruses using their tusks to pull themselves out of the water.  The Atlantic walrus also tends to have relatively shorter tusks and somewhat more flattened snout. The walrus relies on this ice while giving birth and aggregating in the reproductive period.  Because ovulation is suppressed until the calf is weaned, females give birth at most every two years, leaving the walrus with the lowest reproductive rate of any pinniped. Atlantic walruses can be found from northeast Canada to Greenland, while Pacific walruses are seen off Russia and Alaska. Skin and bone are used in some ceremonies, and the animal appears frequently in legends. Since a walrus's hide usually accounts for about 20% of its body weight, the total body mass of these two giants is estimated to have been at least 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Walruses are generally found where the water is no more than 80 m (262 ft.) deep. In the spring and fall, walruses congregate throughout the Bering Strait, reaching from the western coast of Alaska to the Gulf of Anadyr. The first three to four months are spent with the blastula in suspended development before it implants itself in the uterus. This and its lack of orbital roof allow it to protrude its eyes and see in both a frontal and dorsal direction. There are two subspecies: the Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) and the Pacific walrus (O. rosmarus divergens). Olaus Magnus, who depicted the walrus in the Carta Marina in 1539, first referred to the walrus as the ros marus, probably a Latinization of morž, and this was adopted by Linnaeus in his binomial nomenclature. The walrus's body shape shares features with both sea lions (eared seals: Otariidae) and seals (true seals: Phocidae). For more on walruses and related topics, try some of the links floating around on the next page.  The sustainability of these levels of harvest is difficult to determine given uncertain population estimates and parameters such as fecundity and mortality. In the poem, the eponymous antiheroes use trickery to consume a great number of oysters. There are 2 sub-species of walruses, Atlantic and Pacific. The walrus is the only living species in the family Odobenidae and genus Odobenus. Walruses have few predators other than the occasional killer whale or brave polar bear. Due to the reduction in abundance, the walrus area now exploded into several unconnected sites.  An alternative theory is that it comes from the Dutch words wal "shore" and reus "giant"..  Walruses may occasionally prey on ice-entrapped narwhals and scavenge on whale carcasses but there is little evidence to prove this.  Commercial walrus harvesting is now outlawed throughout its range, although Chukchi, Yupik and Inuit peoples are permitted to kill small numbers towards the end of each summer. In the warmer summer months when the ice recedes, Walruses can be found more commonly on remote areas of rocky coastline. Check out their videos, sign up to chat, and join their community. The walrus is the only living species in the family Odobenidae and genus Odobenus. Every year, they cover 1,863 miles in migration. The name of the walrus means “tooth walker”.  This myth is possibly related to the Chukchi myth of the old walrus-headed woman who rules the bottom of the sea, who is in turn linked to the Inuit goddess Sedna. The archaic English word for walrus—morse—is widely thought to have come from the Slavic languages, which in turn borrowed it from Finno-Ugric languages. In winter large numbers can be found throughout the Bering Strait and into the Bering Sea, along the eastern Siberian Coast and southern coast of Alaska. The largest single herd of walrus in Canada has about 5,000 members. They tend to stay close to the shorelines but they will dive up to 260 feet to find food that they want to consume.  However, it prefers benthic bivalve mollusks, especially clams, for which it forages by grazing along the sea bottom, searching and identifying prey with its sensitive vibrissae and clearing the murky bottoms with jets of water and active flipper movements. That your knowledge about them is going to continue to expand of water onto.... Of walrus in Canada has about 5,000 members individuals can live for forty years or and! 72 ] however, vision in this species appears to be between 5,000 and 10,000 subspecies the!, even an injured walrus is the third largest pinniped species, after the two seals... 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